Rose

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General Information

The roses are deciduous or evergreen shrubs, climbing or creeping. The genus Rosa L. ,which belongs to the Rosaceae family, includes more than 120 species. They varieties of roses nowadays reach up to 30,000.

There are too many colors in the flowers of roses can be found , such as:

  • Colored roses
  • Two Color Roses
  • Colorful roses
  • Striped Roses
  • Mixed Roses

Roses need full sun to produce high quality roses and can not withstand the shade. The planting distance between two roses should be sufficient so as to ventilate correctly and to grow strong plants.

Rose Cultivation

The rose is a plant of the temperate zone, having wide ranges of resistance to low and high temperature. It is a deciduous plant that can withstand the cold temperatures as low as -15 ˚ C as long as is not exposed to frosty winds.
The rose can withstand high temperatures , but the optimal temperatures are 17-24 ˚ C. The ideal soils for cultivation must have pH values 6,5-7,5 and must be located at an altitude of 600 m or higher. When the cultivation soil is deep and relatively fertile there is no need to use fertilizer. The The rose cultivation reaches its full efficiency in the fourth year, while the flowering begins in the second year. The average yield per acre ,of a full development plantation, is about 200-400 kg fresh rose petals. To produce 1 liter of rose oil 3-5 tones petals are required to distill.
To achieve the optimal cultivation growth, the planting distances should be 1,5 x 1,5 m. The harvesting is ideal when all the petals can be caught with three fingers and removed, leaving the plant with the calyx and the stamens. Any harvested stamens, or other parts of the flower are removed prior to distillation.

Ornamental Use

There are more than 500 species and 20,000 varieties of roses worldwide. It is a deciduous and ornamental plant. It consists of the root, the sprout, leaves and the flowers. At first the buds are closed and slowly begin to open and the petals start to bloom. The petals have different colors like white, red , pink , yellow and more. The flower color is proportional to the variety of each rose .
The rose, other than the beauty and fragrant flowers, provides essential and aromatic oil of excellent quality, which is used in perfumes. The rose petals (mostly from the pink roses) may also be used to make confectionary.

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Products

• Essential-oil: The Rosa Damascene variety is being cultivated for high quality essential oil. Indicator of good quality is the deep, fresh aroma and its soft yellow with a greenish tint color. Its chemical composition is complex and contains more than 300 known compounds. Health benefits: The essential oil is antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, anti-oic, aphrodisiac, astringent, bactericidal, emmenagogue, hemostatic,liver laxative , calming the nervous system and stimulating the stomach and heart.

Uses of Essential Oils: Used in pharmaceutical against depression, against nervous system problems, restores proper blood circulation and heart arrhythmias, strengthens the liver and the gall bladder, and fights cough and asthma. Regulates irregular menstruation, and restores many disorders. It is antiseptic, it moisturizes the skin and is used against herpes, eczema and redness of the skin. The essential-oil is used in aromatherapy due to its calming effects, in cosmetology for producing various formulations for hydration, revitalization and skin regeneration, as well as in perfumery for producing well known and expensive perfumes.

• Rose water: The rosewater is produced during the distillation process of the rose petals for the production of essential oil. It constitutes the aqueous portion of the distillation and is very rich in flavonoids and vitamins such as A, B, C, D, E, and B3. It is used in pharmaceutical preparations for the avoidance of infections and to reduce nervous tension. It also facilitates digestive system, faces the eye irritation, relieves toothache and helps fight gingivitis. It has antibacterial actions and heals skin acne. In cosmetology it is used in to protect, to clean and moisturize the skin and helps to preserve youthfulness by combating dry skin, reducing pore size and conservation of the natural PH balance of the skin. Rosewater is widely used in recipes and pastry.