Mycorrhiza

mikorizes

A mycorrhiza is a symbiotic compound between a fungus and the roots of a plant. In a mycorrhizal compound, the fungus supplies the plant with inorganic nutrients and the plant supplies the fungus with various organic compounds (products of photosynthesis).

Factors contributing to the development of mycorrhizae are salinity of soils, the water  levels, the low nutrient availability and high concentration of CaCO3. The ideal soil temperature for growth of mycorrhiza is 25 oC. Mycorrhizais are formed only when the conditions are favorable.

The Mycorrhizal affect the morphology of the plant’s root system, the distribution of Nitrogen (N), the biosynthesis of proline and of the soluble sugars. They also affect various  functions (photosynthesis) and the antioxidant defenses of the plant.

Mycorrhiza’s Advantages

• The roots bearing micellar textures are resistant to drought, compared to plants lacking this symbiotic compound.
• The health and robustness of the plants with a mychorrhizal coexistence is superior to the other plants because even if they lose their root system from diseases or soil insects they respond better in the nutrition.
• The mycorrhiza produce antibiotic substances that inhibit the phytopathogenic fungus, which exist in the soil, to settle in the root zone.
• When mycorrhiza is added, the plant root is activated to produce substances that support the root walls thus increasing the resistance of the plant in pathogens.
• The mycorrhiza contains beneficial microorganisms, bacteria and of fungi that defend against phytopathogenic fungi / bacteria and modify soil the by enhancing the nutrition of the plant root. These microorganisms transfer the nutrient cycles in the soil, facilitating the Mycorrhizal and the plant root.

Effects of mycorrhizal development:

• Increase of the mobility and the availability of nutrients ( P , N , S, micronutrients Cu, Zn).
• Better growth of bacteria that dissolve phosphorus. Better growth of nitrobacteria and enhancing of the nitrogen fixation in legumes.
• Conversion of the plant – pathogen relationship. Mycorrhizas contribute to the addition of many beneficial microorganisms in the plant’s root and reduce the sensitivity of the plant in pathogens and nematodes .
• They enhance the plant’s resistance in fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani), in vertisillio (Verticillium sp.), in Rhizoctonia (Rhizoctonia solani) and Macrophomina phaseolina. They also enhance the plant’s resistance in Pythium (Pythium sp.), in phytophtora (Phytophthora sp.) and in Agrobacterium which causes cancer of the roots .
• Improved adaptation to environmental adversities.
• Mycorrhizas detoxify the rhizosphere in case of the existence of heavy metals in the soil.

Mycorrhizas effects in soil and production:

• Increased productivity
• Improvement of the production’s uniformity
• Shortens the time of ripeningReduction of the loss during transplanting
• Limitation of the use of fertilizers and pesticides
• Increased disease resistance
• Accelerates the bud and the bloom