Broccoli

brokolo11

Scientific name: Brassica oleracea var. italica

Family: Brassicaceae ( Cruciferae )

Common name: Broccoli

Description

Broccoli is an herbaceous plant with annual biological cycle. Broccoli is originated from wild cabbage plant and developed in Europe. There are indications that is known for 2000 years. From the time of the Roman Empire, the Italians venerated broccoli and included it in their diet.

broccoli_table_english

Health benefits

Helps the heart

Anti-cancer

Improves skin health

Boosts the immune system

Physical characteristics

Annul herbaceous plant
Height = 50- 90 cm
The leaves are leaf stalked and they don’t cover the head
The head is green or purple
The inflorescences are dense at the central tip
2 varieties: The sprouting types carry more or less uniform small heads. In calabrese broccoli the removal of the central shaft leads to the development of numerous lateral heads.

Cultivation

Climate:

Mild climatic conditions
Ideal temperatures for seed germination are 20-30 ° C
Ideal temperatures for plant growth are 15-18 ° C
Warm weather causes faster head bloom

Soil:

Fertile, deeply working soil, sandy loam soil, rich in organic matter.
Well drained soil with good moisture level
pH= 6,5-7,0
High resistance in salty soils

Irrigation:

Moist soil but extremely moist soil often causes plant diseases.
Often watering during plantation.

Planting:
Non Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) seed

Outdoor planting distances:

Along line: 20-40 cm
Between lines: 40-90 cm
Planting afternoon, followed by watering.
Early production: early spring.
A mid to early production: end of spring.
Late production: late summer.

Fertilization and Hoeing:

Soil enrichment with natural products at planting.
Addition of natural products when it’s necessary .
Weed control and their incorporation so as to improve ventilation .
Removal of the lower and old leaves because they are more vulnerable to diseases.

Harvest and Storage

Harvesting season: 3-4,5 months after planting
Production: 1,5-2 tn / acre
Harvesting criteria: closed flower buds, large-sized tight head and head’s size at 10-15 cm
Heads’ chilling with water at 5-7 ºC for 3-4 weeks and 95% R.H.
Ventilation is necessary during storage
Deep freezing after been scalded with steam or hot (96 ºC)

Crop Combination

Beans, peas, cucumber, lettuce, beetroot, celery, spinach, radish, tomato, potato